How can solar flares affect Earth?

Question

How can solar flares affect Earth?

a. They are created by reconnection events when two arches on the Sun’s surface cancel each other, so they do not affect Earth significantly.

b. They emit large amount of X-rays and ultraviolet radiation that travel to Earth and increase the ionization of Earth’s upper atmosphere. Flares also emit large amounts of charged particles that are caught by Earth’s magnetic field.

c. They emit large amounts of X-rays and ultraviolet radiation, but at such distance it does not affect Earth due to the inverse-square law.

d. They emit large amounts of X-rays and ultraviolet radiation, which are caught by Earth’s magnetic field and decrease the ionization of Earth’s upper atmosphere.

 
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